I've got several great weapons. My sniper rifle is 576 dmg., 97.5 acc., 2.7 rof, 15 round mag (with my bonuses as a soldier the mag size is increased to 25), and it's a 3x electrical. It also has some other bonuses like +mag size, recoil reduction, etc. I love that rifle.
I've also got a 200 x11 dmg shotty. The accuracy is very low so it's pretty much restricted to close encounters, but criticals with it are brutal.
A 156 dmg, 80 acc, 16.4 rof, scoped SMG with a 48 round mag and reload speed so fast you can't even notice it happened. It's the only weapon I could actually run out of ammo for (I wear a +15 team ammo regen, +33% team magazine size class mod).
I don't remember the specs on my combat rifle exactly. I think it's around 200dmg, very good accuracy, good rate of fire and clip size. The good thing about it is the 69% recoil reduction plus the accuracy make it critical-city!
Some assorted high damage elemental rocket launchers; high level eridian weapons (which I still don't use), and a couple of decent pistols which I really don't use either.
I just finished my first playthrough with Mordecai lvl 35. Ever since level 28 I've been religiously using a Pearl Cyclops sniper rifle with 421dmg and 3.2x zoom... makes for easy headshots that crit for 3-5k! I really wanna find one of those volcano snipers though, did you get that on your first playthrough?
Also, I came across a green shotgun that had 100x12dmg at lvl 30, used it for ages and never found a worthy replacement. Even neglected the boomstick for it!
the elephant gun on 2nd playthrough is wicked 856 damage!
the eridian weapons the 2nd time through are wicked too
the eridian 10010101111 blaster does around 845 dam
the eridian "pew pew pew" 10011 does 95 per shot and shoots really fast.
the Thundestorm is very cool for an eridian weapon it makes a thunderclap when fired and is
a shotgun (electric)
The Bloody Law 796 damage revolver is ok.
Exploding sniper rifles rock.
and I too have one of the 200+ damage x14 pellets does insane damage up close and
mine fires about 19 shots before needing a reload!
those are but a few I've found. I shall keep looking!