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Mar 28 2010
By: welcomehomey Gaming Beast 2498 posts
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Two guides: How to reball the bga: How to reflow the bga

20 replies 8670 views Edited Mar 28, 2010

WARNING: A warning denotes a hazard that can cause injury.
CAUTION: A caution denotes a hazard that can result in loss to property or equipment.


Do not proceed beyond a WARNING or CAUTION notice until you have understood the hazardous
conditions and have taken appropriate steps.


Ventilation:
Flux fumes from soldering and desoldering can be harmful. Use general or local
exhaust ventilation to meet TLV requirements. Consult Material Safety Data Sheets
(MSDS) for Threshold Limit Value (TLV) numbers.


Personal Protective Equipment:
Chemicals used in reballing process can cause skin irritation. Use appropriate
personal protective equipment when performing cleaning, soldering and desoldering
activities.


Lead Warning:
The USEPA Carcinogen Assessment Group lists lead and its compounds as
teratogens and its components to be a Class B-2 carcinogen. IARC. California
Proposition 65 requires a posted warning that lead can cause birth defects or other
reproductive harm.


When working with ESD sensitive parts make sure your work area is ESD safe by using:
Finger cots
Conductive work mat or table top
Grounding heel strap and wrist strap


Sensitivities


ESD Sensitivity
The sequence of package removal, reballing, and remounting on a PCB or other substrate provides
numerous chances for ESD damage.


Temperature Sensitivity
BGA packages are sensitive to temperature stresses in three ways:


· Rapid changes in temperature induce stresses due to non-uniformity of internal temperatures.
Rapid heating of only one side of a BGA package can induce stresses on a large die.


· Excessive temperature: Plastic BGA packages are much like printed circuit boards. Their
substrates are glass reinforced and typically have a Tg (glass transition temperature) of
approximately 230°C. Above the glass transition temperature the coefficient of thermal
expansion increases, adversely effecting internal stresses. Keeping the substrate below this
temperature is very important.


· Non-uniformity of heat application: The hot air system used by Winslow Automation is a
convection oven rather than a gun type hot air delivery system. The oven provides uniform
heating to parts that is essential for effective soldering. Further, the oven delivers low speed hot
air thereby reducing temperature stress due to temperature differentials. The paper of the preform
tends to insulate the pads of the substrate from the air. Consequently, the soaking time of the
oven allows time to bring the pads up to solder wetting temperature uniformly. When the heating
profile is completed, the preform is light brown in color. Higher flow temperature will cause the
preform to progress in color to deep brown and even black.


· We recommend that BGA components never exceed 220 degrees C.


Warning:
The following processes require the use of hot soldering irons that can cause burns. Solder flux is
harmful if swallowed and can cause skin irritation. Avoid breathing solder flux fumes. Isopropyl Alcohol used in the
process is flammable and harmful if swallowed or inhaled. Provide local and general ventilation to meet
TLV numbers.


A word about flux…


The flux we use in house and send with the kits is Alpha Metals WS609.


The process was designed using WS609 and it’s use is strongly recommended because it has been
extensively tested, and it works.


If for any reason you would rather use a different flux, that flux should have the following basic properties:
·  Mild to medium activity organic acid
·  It must be a paste flux, as the tackiness is essential for ball attach
·  It must be water soluble, otherwise, paper removal and cleaning is very difficult.


No Clean fluxes are generally ill suited to this process. They typically have too low an activity to provide
for good wetting. No Clean fluxes tend to make paper removal more difficult because they are not water
soluble. Also, the quantity of No Clean flux required in this process is so great that extra cleaning will most
likely be required.

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Gaming Beast
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Re: How to reflow the bga

Mar 28, 2010

If the ball on the chip is broken off then you need to reball.

If you have not reflowed the chip before then the reflow should be all you need.

Reflowing once is recommended and after that a reball if the ylod comes back. Some guides say you can reflow 3 times but other guides say reflowing only once is good and so if you reflow do it properly or else you might have to reball.

playing socom confrontation since the beta.
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Gaming Beast
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How to reflow the bga

Mar 28, 2010

Flux used: Lead-Free noncorrosive, halide free, no clean Flux Dispensing Pen
Tin foil the area on the top of the motherboard so only the chip gets the heat from the heat gun.


Lead free (Sn/Ag/Cu (SAC/NEMI) alloy solder paste), has a melting point (liquidus) of 217 °C.


· Holding the board, put the flux on the board and beside the chip and squeeze the flux liquid under the chip.
So you put the liquid on one side of the chip and it flows to the other side of the chip by traveling under the chip.
You don't flux the capacitors on the opposite side of the motherboard where the bottom of the chip is.

The idea is to get flux around the solder, so add flux from the opposite side of the chip too if you want to be sure the flux is around every solder.


· Put the motherboard on the Zephyrtronics Adjustable Board Cradle. Holds the board flat.

On the top of the motherboard, put tin foil around the chip on all four sides so that only the chip is exposed to the heat from the heat gun and not the other components.


· Put the Zephyrtronics ZT-1-CLS COMPACT, ECONO AIRBATH PREHEATER below the motherboard where the bga is.
Preheat the bottom side of the board to 100°C before heating the BGA on the top of the motherboard.
This is what a controlled process means.
Temperature industry standard, built-in temperature ramping at 2° to 4°C per second to 100ºC


· On the top of the motherboard heat the chip up to around 217°C using the heat gun.
Use a circular motion on the heat gun moving it in a circle around the area of the chip.
· Peak temperature of the chip should be 225°C
· Remain above liquidus (217°C) and preferably below 225°C for 70 to 90 seconds.
· Larger components or heatsinks will necessitate longer heat cycles  


· Keep the work area: chip, motherboard, cooler than 230°C at all times.


· A preferred hot air tool supplies hot air to both the top and underside of the fixture.


Air flow all around the package ensures even heating of the package.
Packages not uniformly heated may develop a temperature gradient within the package.
High temperature gradients lead to high stresses that could damage the package.


This means the heat gun puts heat on the top and the preheater hets the bottom during the reflow process.
Start counting to 70 or 90 seconds when you heat the top of the motherboard on the chip and the chip reaches 217°C.


· after waiting the 70 or 90 seconds, turn off the heatgun and preheater and let the motherboard sit and cool for 20 minutes or so.
So no move the motherboard as things will move because the solder is in a loose form now.


Cost


ZT-4-MIL-120 AIRPLUS FUME EXTRACTOR
$175.00


Zephyrtronics Adjustable Board Cradle
$195.00


ZT-1-CLS COMPACT, ECONO AIRBATH PREHEATER
$325.00


infrared handheld thermometer OSXL450
$70.00


tin foil
$2.00


CircuitWorks Lead-Free Flux Dispensing Pen
$7.15


Total cost $774.15

playing socom confrontation since the beta.
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Gaming Beast
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How to reball the bga

Mar 28, 2010

________________________________

Preparation


- On the top of the motherboard, put tin foil around the chip on all four sides so that only the chip is exposed to the heat from the heat gun and not the other components.


- bga/chip removal


Removing BGA packages involves heating the solder joints above the liquidus temperature of the solder and picking the part off the PCB when the solder melts.
The quality of rework is controlled by directing thermal energy to solder without over-heating the adjacent components.
Lead free (Sn/Ag/Cu (SAC/NEMI) alloy solder paste), has a melting point (liquidus) of 217 °C.


· Put the motherboard on the Zephyrtronics Adjustable Board Cradle. Holds the board flat.


· Put the Zephyrtronics ZT-1-CLS COMPACT, ECONO AIRBATH PREHEATER below the motherboard where the bga is.
Preheat the bottom side of the board to 100°C before heating the BGA on the top of the motherboard.
This is what a controlled process means.
Temperature industry standard, built-in temperature ramping at 2° to 4°C per second to 100ºC


· On the top of the motherboard heat the chip up to around 217°C using the heat gun.
Use a circular motion on the heat gun moving it in a circle around the area of the chip.
· Peak temperature of the chip should be 225°C
· Remain above liquidus (217°C) and preferably below 225°C for 70 to 90 seconds.
· Larger components or heatsinks will necessitate longer heat cycles  


· Keep the work area: chip, motherboard, cooler than 230°C at all times.


· A preferred hot air tool supplies hot air to both the top and underside of the fixture.


Air flow all around the package ensures even heating of the package.
Packages not uniformly heated may develop a temperature gradient within the package.
High temperature gradients lead to high stresses that could damage the package.


This means the heat gun puts heat on the top and the preheater hets the bottom during the reflow process.
Start counting to 70 or 90 seconds when you heat the top of the motherboard on the chip and the chip reaches 217°C.


· Once the liquidus temperature is reached for the required amount of time, the AIRPICK™  ZT-3-MIL picks up the chip and the component is removed.


· Keep the work area: chip, motherboard, cooler than 230°C at all times.


Cost


ZT-4-MIL-120 AIRPLUS FUME EXTRACTOR
$175.00


Zephyrtronics Adjustable Board Cradle
$195.00


ZT-1-CLS COMPACT, ECONO AIRBATH PREHEATER
$325.00


AIRPICK™  ZT-3-MIL
$185.00


infrared handheld thermometer OSXL450
$70.00


tin foil
$2.00


Total cost $952.00
_________________________________


BGA deballing process: Clean off old Solder from the motherboard and chip using a wide blade soldering iron tip, flux and desolder braid.

· Plug in your soldering iron, put it in the stand and wait for it to heat up.
Whatever you do don’t poke at the tip with your finger to see if it’s hot or not, remember that soldering irons are hot enough to melt metal.

· Put flux on chip, using soldering iron tip, push flux over surface of chip.

· Put the solder braid on the chip and using the soldering iron tip push the solder braid over the chip cleaning off the old solder..

Here’s a few things to remember:
* WATCH THE HEAT from the soldering iron tip, don’t heat up your component for more then a few seconds, it might damage it
* KEEP YOUR SOLDERING IRON CLEAN[ wipe it every few solders on your wet sponge to keep the tip clear and free of solder.

· Next step is using only isopropyl alcohol and a cloth, wipe off the chip
Now the old solder is removed and the surface is clean do this to clean the solder off the motherboard where the chip was removed.

· Remember you used corrosive flux on the chip and motherboard.
Immediately clean the package with Isopropyl alcohol. Apply a generous amount of Isopropyl alcohol and scrub the package with the brush.
Support the package while brushing to avoid mechanical stress.

To achieve the best cleaning results, brush the package in one direction and then turn the package a quarter turn and brush in the same direction.
Do this for all 4 sides.

Rinse the with Isopropyl alcohol. This will remove small bits of flux loose during the previous cleaning steps.
Allow package to air dry. Do not wipe package dry with dry paper towel.

Inspect package
Use a microscope to inspect the package for flux residue. Redo cleaning if the package needs additional cleaning.
You don't want flux residue, it looks gummy, dirty, You want to see a nice clean color.
Because the process does not use a no-clean flux, careful cleaning is essential to prevent corrosion and prevent long term reliability loss.

Compact Digital Inspection Microscope with Advanced Software - 60x & 180x
$349.95

Aoyue 2900 Soldering Station
$73.86

Alpha Metals WS609 flux paste
500g Jar $97.50

Total cost $521.31

_________________________________

Screen Method of Reballing

a.)
Place chip into the fixture.

b.) Apply Alpha Metals WS609 flux to the cleaned chip area, coating the entire surface of the cleaned area.
Use some tweezers or something like a paint brush being careful not to scratch the chip.
Be sure all pads are covered with flux.
A thinner layer of flux works better than a thicker layer.

c.) Put the stencil over the fixture.

d.) The fluxed side of the chip is facing up, drop the sphere solder balls into the stencil holes.

e.) Now using the tweezers grab a bit of flux and put it over the solder balls and apply heat from the heatgun to the flux and it will drop onto the fixture.
Heat fixture over the sphere balls using heat gun.
Where you heat the chip should be a level surface, so use a leveler and make the surface level then put the chip on it and heat the chip there.
Using the infrared handheld thermometer bring the chip heat to 217°C for 70 to 90 seconds, don't go over 225°C because the chip can get damaged at 230°C.

Alternative method

Some people remove the chip from the stencil and use the heatgun on the chip in the fixture for a few seconds. Then remove the chip from the fixture and reflow the chip properly at the correct temperature for the correct time in a special bga reflow oven.

e.) After reflow remove chip from special bga reflow oven let the chip cool for 2 minutes. Or if you reflowed the cpu in the fixture let it cool for 2 minutes then remove the cpu from the fixture and stencil being careful not to snap any balls off from the chip.

f.) Remember you used corrosive flux on the chip and motherboard.
Immediately clean the package with Isopropyl alcohol. Apply a generous amount of Isopropyl alcohol and scrub the package with the brush.
Support the package while brushing to avoid mechanical stress.

To achieve the best cleaning results, brush the package in one direction and then turn the package a quarter turn and brush in the same direction.
Do this for all 4 sides.

Rinse the with Isopropyl alcohol. This will remove small bits of flux loose during the previous cleaning steps.
Allow package to air dry. Do not wipe package dry with dry paper towel.

Inspect package
Use a microscope to inspect the package for contamination, missing balls, and flux residue. Redo cleaning if the package needs additional cleaning.
You don't want flux residue around the base of the ball.
Because the process does not use a no-clean flux, careful cleaning is essential to prevent corrosion and prevent long term reliability loss.

Also of note is soldering needs clean metal to metal contact.

- Put the chip back onto the motherboard and heat with heatgun while holding down chip with soldering iron tip.
This will rejoin the chip to the motherboard. Let cool for 20 mintues before applying thermal paste and heatsink.

- apply thermal paste and reassemble machine.

Reballing kit: Fixture, preform, solder balls
$ 367.95

________________________________________________

Tools used:
- Safety
ZT-4-MIL-120 AIRPLUS FUME EXTRACTOR
· Safety glasses
- finger cots

- Preparation
tin foil to prepare work area on motherboard

- removing chip
Zephyrtronics Adjustable Board Cradle. Holds the board flat.
Zephyrtronics ZT-1-CLS COMPACT, ECONO AIRBATH PREHEATER. Preheats the bottom of the motherboard before heating the top side.
Zephyrtronics AIRPICK™ ZT-3-MIL. To pick up the chip when the top side of the motherboard reaches 215 celcius for 70 to 90 seconds.
Heat gun
infrared handheld thermometer

- Cleaning chip and motherboard
Alpha Metals WS609 flux
heat gun
Soldering iron with a sharp tip for soldering small things (preferably between 15-20 Watts, no more no less)
If you’re using a brand new soldering iron and also periodically as you use your soldering iron, it is a good idea to “tin” it (or coat the tip with solder):
Desoldering braid
Scissors (to cut desoldering braid)
isopropyl alcohol

- Reballing chip
Alpha Metals WS609 flux
Heat gun
Solder, 63/37
tweezers, paint brush
Isopropyl alcohol
stencil, stencil holder
Sphere balls for stencil
Microscope
_____________________________________

Cost

ZT-4-MIL-120 AIRPLUS FUME EXTRACTOR
$175.00

Zephyrtronics Adjustable Board Cradle
$195.00

ZT-1-CLS COMPACT, ECONO AIRBATH PREHEATER
$325.00

AIRPICK™ ZT-3-MIL
$185.00

infrared handheld thermometer OSXL450
$70.00

Reballing kit: Fixture, preform, solder balls
$ 367.95
PS3 Mask Name_Ball Size_Mask Thickness_Pitch Size
RSX__________ 0.60 mm___0.20 mm________1.00 mm
CPUP2________ 0.65 mm___0.25 mm________1.27 mm
CPUP3_________0.60 mm___0.20 mm________1.00 mm

Compact Digital Inspection Microscope with Advanced Software - 60x & 180x
$349.95

Aoyue 2900 Soldering Station
$73.86

Alpha Metals WS609 flux paste
500g Jar $97.50
_________________________
Cost so far $ 1848.26

Still have to buy:
· Safety glasses
- finger cots
tin foil
Scissors (to cut desoldering braid)
isopropyl alcohol
tweezers, paint brush

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Gaming Beast
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Re: How to reflow the bga

Mar 28, 2010

I updated the reballing guide.

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Survivor
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Re: How to reflow the bga

Mar 28, 2010

I have done this on mine about 11months back and have had no issues since. I also posted a guide awhile back on how to do this.

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Survivor
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Re: How to reflow the bga

Mar 28, 2010

Im curious as to how many people have tried this yet.

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First Son
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RE: How to reflow the bga

Apr 20, 2010

Thanks for the process, but I have yet to try reballing, from what i understand it requires certain equipment that i do not have. I would like to find an in depth video of how to reball without the use of certain equipment as i have been told it can be done. I ordered a ezreball kit as well as some ps3 stencils of the bgas and will attempt a reball on 1 of the 3 ylod ps3s that i have. Thanks for the info and hope you guys post some more responses.

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Lombax Warrior
Registered: 12/17/2008
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Re: RE: How to reflow the bga

Apr 20, 2010

recently tried it but after ruining the ps3 for 2hrs it starts pixilating i guess my rsx took damage when it ylod

 

the best of luck to those that had a ylod and repaired it by re balling if you do want to repair your ps3 than i would advise you to do it this method rather than reflow unless you just want a quick fix to sell it off

 

knightsgaming also does a reball of both chips wants over 200$ for it they had a 2yr warranty but now its only one wonder why they changed it

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First Son
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Re: How to reflow the bga

May 18, 2010

i have a ps3 that i want to reball i know how to for the most part i just need to know what flux to use and where im supose to use it and how exactly do i get the CPU and GPU off of the mobo? also i want to know what is the best heat sink to use i know everyone say silver 5 but ive heard of others that are supose to work faster and better. I would really apreciat it if you could help

"Essentially everything is comprised of energy, therefore nothing is impossible only nothing is impossible"
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